Home » Баяндамалар » Providing inclusive learning environment for students with special educational needs

Providing inclusive learning environment for students with special educational needs

МРНТИ 16.21.37

Key words: SEN, inclusive education, disability, neuro-diverse, impairment, dyslexia, ADHD, dyspraxia, autistic spectrum, interventions, behavioural differences.


The Branch of Joint stock company “National Center for professional development “Orleu” of Zhambyl region promotes a social model of disability, assuming differences are a normal part of life, and that teaching must be adapted to the needs of the learner. The social model states that society needs to adapt to the individual and it begins from the needs of the learner in overcoming barriers to learning. This is different to a medical model of disability where the impairment or disability is defined as the problem.

Our approach is based on that agreed by the UNESCO Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action (1994) [1].

In 1994 the United Nations conference representing 92 governments and 25 agencies adopted the Salamanca Statement ‘Reaffirming the right to education of every individual, as enshrined in the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and renewing the pledge made by the world community at the 1990 World Conference on Education for All to ensure that right for all regardless of individual differences’. Decisions taken at Salamanca included:

  1. Every child has a fundamental right to education, and must be given the opportunity to achieve

and maintain an acceptable level of learning.

The Salamanca Declaration called upon governments to:

  • give the highest policy and budgetary priority to improve their education systems to enable them to include all children regardless of individual differences or difficulties;
  • adopt as a matter of law or policy the principle of inclusive education, enrolling all children in regular schools, unless there are compelling reasons for doing otherwise;
  • develop demonstration projects and encourage exchanges with countries having experience with inclusive schools.
  1. Every child has unique characteristics, interests, abilities and learning needs.
  2. Education systems should be designed and educational programs implemented to take into account the wide diversity of these characteristics and needs and those with special educational needs must have access to regular schools which should accommodate them within a child-centered pedagogy capable of meeting these needs.
  3. Regular schools with this inclusive orientation are the most effective.
  4. This means combating discriminatory attitudes, creating welcoming communities, building an inclusive society and achieving education for all; moreover, they provide an effective education to the majority of children and improve the efficiency and ultimately the cost-effectiveness of the entire education system.
  5. However, while 5 is an importance principle of inclusion there is no one size fits all appropriate way to deliver inclusion. Inclusion is an approach and the starting point is how to meet the needs of the individual learner. This may mean that support and interventions may be more appropriate in a secure special school environment. A test of inclusion is more on how access to a curriculum and learning is ensured rather than the physical space. Everyone in the same class all the time may not be the best test of inclusion.

Understanding where specific learning challenges come from is important, and the more teachers know about specific needs, the more they will have the skills and knowledge to offer specific support. Labeling and diagnosis of a SEN may, of course, be helpful in attracting funding and support and for that should be welcomed. Beyond that an inclusive approach will target specific interventions and address the needs of all learners. This will usually involve maximum variety in learning, playing to individuals’ strengths and multisensory approaches.

An important concept in understanding SENs and inclusion is the concept of neuro-diversity which gives us a broad understanding of how people learn in diverse ways. For most learners who may be described as ‘neuro-diverse’ it is classroom learning that is a problem where learning is usually based on a lockstep

approach and does not meet individual needs in ways they learn [5].

The SENs modules fall, in the main, into the using Inclusive practices practice. However, there are inevitably overlaps into other professional practices such as Understanding learners and Assessing learning.

Using pedagogical strategies that encourage inclusive education within a supportive learning environment. Supporting learners in identifying, addressing and assessing realistic individual learning goals based on reasonable adjustment.

Being aware of my beliefs and how they can impact on establishing and maintaining an inclusive learning environment. Assessing individual learners in a variety of ways that allow them to demonstrate the progress they are making.

Treating all my learners equitably and with respect, developing positive attitudes towards diversity in my learners [5].

Our branch established the theme of research work for 2018-2020 years «Features of preparation of school administration to work with students with special educational needs within the framework of the updated training program».

There are two ways in which our research work form part of a unique offer for educational institutions.

  1. The first way condition of inclusive education in the system of professional development of pedagogical workers of the RK at the present stage is a broad introduction covering a range of SENs for all teachers and are not aimed specifically at SEN specialists.
  2. The second is concerned with how to implement the social model in practice and primarily focus on promoting access, positive learning and inclusion rather than focusing on SENs and broader disability as a problem.

In implementing this work the SENs research aim to:

  1. Raise awareness of attitudes towards teaching learners with special educational needs in particular based on an understanding of the social model of disability
  2. Help to identify and overcome biases and prejudices to learners identified as having special educational needs
  3. Rationale for the need to develop an educational program for the formation of professional competencies of management personnel of the Zhambyl region on inclusive education
  4. Study and analysis of scientific and methodological and other literature on the formation of professional competences of management personnel and the identification of factors.

The term special educational needs (SENs) covers a wide range of learners who have a learning difficulty which calls for special educational provision.

These include:

— learners who have a much greater difficulty in learning than the majority of learners of the same age

-learners with a disability which hinders them from making use of the general educational facilities

provided for learners of the same age

-learners who need extra provision because they have abilities significantly ahead of their peers.

A special educational need is usually understood to include:

-cognition and learning

-behavioral, emotional and social development (including mental health)

-communication and interaction

-sensory and/or physical

-societal exclusion factors such as gender inequality, social displacement due to movement of ethnic Kazakhs (oralmans in Kazakh language) returned to Kazakhstan after the country’s independence  and other factors for family, culture and factors external from school that impact on learning and achievement.

It is important to understand that the wide range of learners will include those who have not been identified as having SENs and may otherwise have just been regarded as ‘slow’ or poor learners. It is often the case that learners have a variety of challenging needs that require support. It is important to understand that this is likely to be a significant section of any learning population.

Many of the learning challenges are very similar across a range of SENs in a learning context. For example, dyslexia, ADHD, dyspraxia, autistic spectrum, interaction needs and receptive/expressive language may require similar interventions.

According to the World Health Organization, ‘Hearing impairment is the most frequent sensory deficit in human populations, affecting more than 250 million people in the world.’ Having a hearing impairment means it is difficult or impossible to hear what other people are saying, which fundamentally affects the

ability to communicate. It can also lead to delayed language acquisition and development, and feelings of isolation. Hearing impairment can be a barrier to learning if it is not recognized and compensated for in the classroom. While some learners may have permanent hearing loss, others may suffer temporary losses from colds and ear infections, especially in primary school. Since even temporary losses can have an effect on language development and access to learning, it is important to recognize the signs that a learner is having difficulty hearing [7].

Communication is a two-way process which involves understanding others and being understood, both giving and receiving information. Learners with hearing impairment can have difficulties with both parts of this process. Finding ways of communicating effectively is vital for including them in the class and ensuring

well-being and successful learning.


  1. Саламанская декларация: о принципах, политике и практической деятельности в сфере образования лиц с особыми потребностями (1994 г.)
  2. Dittrich, WH and Tutt, R (2008) Education Children with Complex conditions. Sage Publications Ltd, 58p.
  3. Martin-Denham, S (2015) Teaching Children and Young People with special educational needs and disabilities, 36p.
  4. Sage Publications Ltd., Spooner, W (2011) The SEN Handbook. NASEN/Routledge 78p.
  5. Hull learning Services (2004) Supporting Children with Cerebral Palsy David Fulton, 65-74p.
  6. Knight, P (1999) The Care and Education of a Deaf Child – a book for parents Multilingual Matters, 67p.
  7. Lynas, W (1994) Communication Options in the Education of Deaf Children Wiley Blackwell,54p.

Yeleussiz Aigul Beibitkyzy

The branch of JSC NCPD “Orleu”,

Institute for Professional Development of Zhambyl region,

senior teacher

Сіз не дейсіз оқырман?

Е-мэйлыңыз жарияланбайды.